Osteoprotegerin (OPG) as Significant Biomarker of Cardiovascular Disease
Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a soluble glycoprotein, which is primarily involved in bone metabolism and is also part of the superfamily tumor factor necrosis receptor TNF. Earlier studies showed that OPG levels of plasma are an independent cardiovascular risk factor. In combination with vascular calcification, myocardial infarction, and stroke, OPG levels in the blood also increase. Previous studies indicate an increase in the levels of OPG in diabetic patients who die of cardiovascular disease. OPG is deposited at the sites of damage to the inner artery wall and merges with fatty deposits that harden in the form of plates and eventually cause a blockage in the blood vessels and occurrence of atherosclerosis, thus caused myocardial infarction or heart attacks. Moreover, patients with diabetes develop intra-endothelial dysfunction in addition to the patient’s CV risk factors such as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia. Given the importance of the OPG in cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerotic diseases, as a biomarker. Since OPG’s function remains obscure, evidence of positive association with cardiovascular disease and diabetes-related cardiovascular disease has been presented from previous studies. Therefore, the purpose of the article was to provide an overview of the main aspects of OPG in cardio-vascular and heart diseases associated with diabetes in physiological and pathophysiological terms.
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