A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Neurofeedback (NFB) Training Method and Fernald’s Multisensory Approach on Dictation Performance among Students Suffering from Dictation Disorder (Dysgraphia)
Introduction: Dysgraphia (disorder in dictation, disorder of written expression) is considered as one of common disorders among students, where there are different methods on how to cope with and treat it. The present study aimed to compare the effectiveness of Neurofeedback (NFB) Training Method and Fernald’s multi-sensory approach on students’ dictation disorder in Rafsanjan city in 2015.
Methods: Twenty six students (age 7-11 years), suffering from dysgraphia, were selected using convenience sampling method from those who referred to Rafsanjan’s Javaneh Consultation Center and randomly divided into two groups, neurofeedback and Fernald. Initially, we conducted a dictation test (pretest) and Raven′s Progressive Matrices. The students that their dictations score were 50/100 or lower enrolled to study. In the NFB group, we applied 15 sessions of neurofeedback training in areas C3 and C4 to strengthen the SMR waves, whereas the second group received 15 sessions of training using Fernald’s multi-sensory approach. Then, both groups were participated in a dictation test at the end of their training processes. Finally, data analyzed by using independent and paired t-test and Cohen′s effect size.
Results: The mean score of dictation in NFB and Fernald groups were 34.2 ± 3.87 and 32.9 ± 4.66 respectively. The difference was not significance (P = 0.043). The mean scores of dictation in posttest in NFB and Fernald groups were higher than pretest. The difference was significance (P < 0.001). However, neurofeedback method showed a much more significant influence in mitigating this disorder as compared to Fernald approach.
Conclusions: The results of our study indicated that each of both Fernald and neurofeedback training methods can be used to improve dictation performance among students suffered from dictation disorder, where depending upon students’ circumstances and parents’ choice, the process of selecting an appropriate method out of these methods can be proceeded.