A Review On Conventional Analysis to Fiber Grating Sensing for Detection of Chronic Kidney Disease

  • Vajresh Kumar N Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India
  • Asokan Sundarrajan, * Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0803-3064
Keywords: Renal Insufficiency, Chronic, Diagnosis, Fiber Grating Sensors, Grating Sensors

Abstract

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the universal problems which is a long-term condition where the kidney stops functioning the way it should. According to the estimated surveys, at least one among ten adults has been facing this health issue. In order to combat these diseases, there is an essential need for stable diagnostic tests that are simple, accurate, and easily accessible. This paper is a review of the non-invasive diagnosis of CKD and its biomarkers using optical fiber-grating sensors (OFGs) which is one of the most attractive biosensors, playing a vital role in the field of biosensing and chemical sensing based on its label-free configuration. These sensors can be used for label-free diagnostic purposes due to their detection properties even in high electric fields and magnetic environments. However, their exploration into the medical field is fairly emerging in recent trends and yet to be commercialized. This review relates to the recent development in OFGs-based diagnosis and also identifies some of the key challenges for practical applications.

Author Biography

Asokan Sundarrajan, *, Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India

E-mail: sasokan@iisc.ac.in

References

NHS. Chronic kidney disease - 2014. Available from: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/kidney-disease/.

Kellum JA, Levin N, Bouman C, Lameire N. Developing a consensus classification system for acute renal failure. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2002;8(6):509-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00075198-200212000-00005 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12454534

Organization WH. Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2014. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014. Google Scholar. 2016.

Couser WG, Remuzzi G, Mendis S, Tonelli M. The contribution of chronic kidney disease to the global burden of major non-communicable diseases. Kidney Int. 2011;80(12):1258-70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2011.368 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21993585

Veerappan I, Abraham G. Chronic kidney disease: Current status, challenges and management in India. Ch. 2013;130:593-7.

WebMD. Chronic Kidney Disease. WebMD Medical Reference from Health wise. 2013. Available from: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwjB3r3pp_L0AhUOCuwKHe_pDxwQFnoECAMQAQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.webmd.com%2Fa-to-z-guides%2Funderstanding-kidney-disease-basic-information&usg=AOvVaw0UYFDfncozBVE3oZoGoKLH.

Fassett RG, Venuthurupalli SK, Gobe GC, Coombes JS, Cooper MA, Hoy WE. Biomarkers in chronic kidney disease: a review. Kidney Int. 2011;80(8):806-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2011.198 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21697815

McNerney R. Diagnostics for Developing Countries. Diagnostics (Basel). 2015;5(2):200-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics5020200 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26854149

Qutb A, Syed G, Tamim HM, Al Jondeby M, Jaradat M, Tamimi W, et al. Cystatin C-based formula is superior to MDRD, Cockcroft-Gault and Nankivell formulae in estimating the glomerular filtration rate in renal allografts. Exp Clin Transplant. 2009;7(4):197-202.

Petrovic S, Bogavac-Stanojevic N, Lakic D, Peco-Antic A, Vulicevic I, Ivanisevic I, et al. Cost-effectiveness analysis of acute kidney injury biomarkers in pediatric cardiac surgery. Biochem Med (Zagreb). 2015;25(2):262-71. http://dx.doi.org/10.11613/BM.2015.027 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26110039

Mishra V, Singh N, Tiwari U, Kapur P. Fiber grating sensors in medicine: Current and emerging applications. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical. 2011;167(2):279-90.

Banica F-G. Chemical sensors and biosensors: fundamentals and applications: John Wiley & Sons; 2012.

Lee B. Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors. Optical Fiber Technology. 2003;9(2):57-79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1068-5200(02)00527-8

Culshaw B, Kersey A. Fiber-Optic Sensing: A Historical Perspective. Journal of Lightwave Technology. 2008;26(9):1064-78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/jlt.0082.921915

Casas JR, Cruz PJS. Fiber Optic Sensors for Bridge Monitoring. Journal of Bridge Engineering. 2003;8(6):362-73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(asce)1084-0702(2003)8:6(362)

Lepinay S, Staff A, Ianoul A, Albert J. Improved detection limits of protein optical fiber biosensors coated with gold nanoparticles. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014;52:337-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2013.08.058 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24080213

DeLisa MP, Zhang Z, Shiloach M, Pilevar S, Davis CC, Sirkis JS, et al. Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor. Anal Chem. 2000;72(13):2895-900. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac9912395 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10905324

López-Higuera JM, Jones JDC, López-Amo M, Santos JL, Marques L, Hernandez FU, et al. Sensitive protein detection using an optical fibre long period grating sensor anchored with silica core gold shell nanoparticles. 2014;9157:91574S. http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2059196

Pilla P, Sandomenico A, Malachovska V, Borriello A, Giordano M, Cutolo A, et al. A protein-based biointerfacing route toward label-free immunoassays with long period gratings in transition mode. Biosens Bioelectron. 2012;31(1):486-91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2011.11.022 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22138469

Zhu SL, Zhang JB, Yue LYL, Hartono D, Liu AQ. Label-Free Protein Detection via Gold Nanoparticles and Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance. Advanced Materials Research. 2009;74:95-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.74.95

Urrutia A, Bojan K, Marques L, Mullaney K, Goicoechea J, James S, et al. Novel highly sensitive protein sensors based on tapered optical fibres modified with Au-based nanocoatings. Journal of Sensors. 2016;2016.

Chin L, Liu A, Lim C, editors. On-chip multiphase tunable grating interferometer for chemical and protein analysis. 2008 IEEE PhotonicsGlobal@ Singapore; 2008: IEEE.

Beier HT, Osinski M, Coté GL, Parak WJ, Jovin TM, Meissner KE, et al. Whispering-gallery-mode-based biosensing using quantum dot-embedded microspheres. 2010;7575:75750H. http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.842595

Othonos A. Bragg Gratings in Optical Fibers: Fundamentals and Applications. 2000:79-187. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-6079-8_2

Kashyap R. Chirped Fiber Bragg Gratings. 2010:301-45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-372579-0.00007-7

Kumar NV, Pant S, Sridhar S, Marulasiddappa V, Srivatzen S, Asokan S. Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Pulse Monitoring Device for Real-Time Non-Invasive Blood Pressure Measurement—A Feasibility Study. IEEE Sensors Journal. 2021;21(7):9179-85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/jsen.2021.3055245

Patrick HJ, Kersey AD, Bucholtz F. Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction. Journal of Lightwave Technology. 1998;16(9):1606-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/50.712243

Mishra V. Refractive index and concentration sensing of solutions using mechanically induced long period grating pair. Optical Engineering. 2005;44(9):094402. http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.2054627

James SW, Tatam RP. Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application. Measurement Science and Technology. 2003;14(5):R49-R61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/14/5/201

A. Asseh S. Sandgren H. Ahlfeldt B. Fiber Optical Bragg Grating Refractometer. Fiber and Integrated Optics. 1998;17(1):51-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/014680398245055

Sun D, Guo T, Ran Y, Huang Y, Guan BO. In-situ DNA hybridization detection with a reflective microfiber grating biosensor. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014;61:541-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2014.05.065 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24953840

Liu Y, Meng C, Zhang AP, Xiao Y, Yu H, Tong L. Compact microfiber Bragg gratings with high-index contrast. Opt Lett. 2011;36(16):3115-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.36.003115 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21847178

Schroeder K, Ecke W, Mueller R, Willsch R, Andreev A. A fibre Bragg grating refractometer. Measurement Science and Technology. 2001;12(7):757-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/12/7/301

Chiavaioli F, Baldini F, Tombelli S, Trono C, Giannetti A. Biosensing with optical fiber gratings. Nanophotonics. 2017;6(4):663-79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/nanoph-2016-0178

Partridge M, Wong R, James SW, Davis F, Higson SPJ, Tatam RP. Long period grating based toluene sensor for use with water contamination. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2014;203:621-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2014.06.121

Takeyama K, Dabbagh K, Lee HM, Agusti C, Lausier JA, Ueki IF, et al. Epidermal growth factor system regulates mucin production in airways. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96(6):3081-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.96.6.3081 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10077640

Bogdanowicz R, Sobaszek M, Ryl J, Gnyba M, Ficek M, Gołuński Ł, et al. Improved surface coverage of an optical fibre with nanocrystalline diamond by the application of dip-coating seeding. Diamond and Related Materials. 2015;55:52-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diamond.2015.03.007

Wolfbeis OS. Fiber-optic chemical sensors and biosensors. Anal Chem. 2004;76(12):3269-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac040049d http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15193108

Korposh SO, Sharkan YP, Sichka MY, Yang DH, Lee SW, Ramsden JJ. Matrix influence on the optical response of composite bacteriorhodopsin films to ammonia. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2008;133(1):281-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2008.02.038

Cennamo N, Massarotti D, Conte L, Zeni L. Low cost sensors based on SPR in a plastic optical fiber for biosensor implementation. Sensors (Basel). 2011;11(12):11752-60. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s111211752 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22247691

Guo T, Liu F, Liang X, Qiu X, Huang Y, Xie C, et al. Highly sensitive detection of urinary protein variations using tilted fiber grating sensors with plasmonic nanocoatings. Biosens Bioelectron. 2016;78:221-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2015.11.047 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26618641

Linzi H, Jiajie L, Xie C, Xiaoyong C, Xuejun Z, Jian X, et al. Highly sensitive and specific detection of urinary Aquaporin-2 using tilted fiber grating sensors with Plasmonic nanocoatings. 2016:1-3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icocn.2016.7875630

Yetisen AK, Montelongo Y, da Cruz Vasconcellos F, Martinez-Hurtado JL, Neupane S, Butt H, et al. Reusable, robust, and accurate laser-generated photonic nanosensor. Nano Lett. 2014;14(6):3587-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl5012504 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24844116

Timmer B, Olthuis W, Berg Avd. Ammonia sensors and their applications—a review. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2005;107(2):666-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2004.11.054

Narasimhan L, Goodman W, Patel CKN. Correlation of breath ammonia with blood urea nitrogen and creatinine during hemodialysis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2001;98(8):4617-21.

Weiner ID, Mitch WE, Sands JM. Urea and Ammonia Metabolism and the Control of Renal Nitrogen Excretion. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015;10(8):1444-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.10311013 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25078422

Schmidt FM, Vaittinen O, Metsala M, Lehto M, Forsblom C, Groop PH, et al. Ammonia in breath and emitted from skin. J Breath Res. 2013;7(1):017109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1752-7155/7/1/017109 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23445955

Wang T, Yasukochi W, Korposh S, James SW, Tatam RP, Lee S-W. A long period grating optical fiber sensor with nano-assembled porphyrin layers for detecting ammonia gas. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2016;228:573-80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2016.01.058

Beland P, Krupin O, Berini P. Selective detection of bacteria in urine with a long-range surface plasmon waveguide biosensor. Biomed Opt Express. 2015;6(8):2908-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/BOE.6.002908 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26309755

Published
2022-01-04
Section
Review Article